Kubernetes Pod 垂直自动伸缩(VPA)

1 VPA 简介

VPA 全称 Vertical Pod Autoscaler,即垂直 Pod 自动扩缩容,它根据容器资源使用率自动设置 CPU 和 内存 的requests,从而允许在节点上进行适当的调度,以便为每个 Pod 提供适当的资源。
它既可以缩小过度请求资源的容器,也可以根据其使用情况随时提升资源不足的容量。
PS: VPA不会改变Pod的资源limits值。

废话不多说,直接上图,看VPA工作流程

2 部署metrics-server

2.1 下载部署清单文件

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]#  wget https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/metrics-server/releases/download/v0.3.7/components.yaml

2.2 修改components.yaml文件

  • 修改了镜像地址为:scofield/metrics-server:v0.3.7
  • 修改了metrics-server启动参数args
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- name: metrics-server
image: scofield/metrics-server:v0.3.7
imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
args:
- --cert-dir=/tmp
- --secure-port=4443
- /metrics-server
- --kubelet-insecure-tls
- --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP

2.3 执行部署

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl  apply -f components.yaml

2.4 验证

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get po -n kube-system | grep metrics-server
metrics-server-5b58f4df77-f7nks 1/1 Running 0 35d

# 能获取要top信息视为成功
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl top nodes
NAME CPU(cores) CPU% MEMORY(bytes) MEMORY%
10.1.2.15 138m 3% 4207Mi 29%
10.1.2.16 159m 4% 3138Mi 45%
10.1.2.17 147m 3% 4118Mi 59%
10.1.50.2 82m 4% 1839Mi 55%

3 部署vertical-pod-autoscaler

3.1 克隆autoscaler项目

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# git clone https://github.com/kubernetes/autoscaler.git

3.2 修改部署文件

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# cd autoscaler/vertical-pod-autoscaler/deploy
admission-controller-deployment.yaml
us.gcr.io/k8s-artifacts-prod/autoscaling/vpa-admission-controller:0.8.0
改为
scofield/vpa-admission-controller:0.8.0

recommender-deployment.yaml
us.gcr.io/k8s-artifacts-prod/autoscaling/vpa-recommender:0.8.0
改为
image: scofield/vpa-recommender:0.8.0

updater-deployment.yaml
us.gcr.io/k8s-artifacts-prod/autoscaling/vpa-updater:0.8.0
改为
scofield/vpa-updater:0.8.0

3.3 部署

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# cd autoscaler/vertical-pod-autoscaler
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# ./hack/vpa-up.sh
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/verticalpodautoscalers.autoscaling.k8s.io created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints.autoscaling.k8s.io created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:metrics-reader created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-actor created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-checkpoint-actor created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:evictioner created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:metrics-reader created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-actor created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-checkpoint-actor created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-target-reader created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-target-reader-binding created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-evictionter-binding created
serviceaccount/vpa-admission-controller created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-admission-controller created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-admission-controller created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-status-reader created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:vpa-status-reader-binding created
serviceaccount/vpa-updater created
deployment.apps/vpa-updater created
serviceaccount/vpa-recommender created
deployment.apps/vpa-recommender created
Generating certs for the VPA Admission Controller in /tmp/vpa-certs.
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
............................................................................+++++
.+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
............+++++
...........................................................................+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)
Signature ok
subject=CN = vpa-webhook.kube-system.svc
Getting CA Private Key
Uploading certs to the cluster.
secret/vpa-tls-certs created
Deleting /tmp/vpa-certs.
deployment.apps/vpa-admission-controller created
service/vpa-webhook created

这里如果出现错误:ERROR: Failed to create CA certificate for self-signing. If the error is “unknown option -addext”, update your openssl version or deploy VPA from the vpa-release-0.8 branch

需要升级openssl的版本解决

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# yum install gcc gcc-c++ -y
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# openssl version -a
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# wget https://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-1.1.1k.tar.gz && tar zxf openssl-1.1.1k.tar.gz && cd openssl-1.1.1k
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# ./config
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# make && make install
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# mv /usr/local/bin/openssl /usr/local/bin/openssl.bak
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# mv apps/openssl /usr/local/bin
[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# openssl version -a
OpenSSL 1.1.1k 25 Mar 2021 (Library: OpenSSL 1.1.1g FIPS 21 Apr 2020)
built on: Mon Mar 29 23:48:12 2021 UTC
platform: linux-x86_64
options: bn(64,64) rc4(16x,int) des(int) idea(int) blowfish(ptr)
compiler: gcc -fPIC -pthread -m64 -Wa,--noexecstack -Wall -O3 -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -grecord-gcc-switches -m64 -mtune=generic -Wa,--noexecstack -Wa,--generate-missing-build-notes=yes -DOPENSSL_USE_NODELETE -DL_ENDIAN -DOPENSSL_PIC -DOPENSSL_CPUID_OBJ -DOPENSSL_IA32_SSE2 -DOPENSSL_BN_ASM_MONT -DOPENSSL_BN_ASM_MONT5 -DOPENSSL_BN_ASM_GF2m -DSHA1_ASM -DSHA256_ASM -DSHA512_ASM -DKECCAK1600_ASM -DRC4_ASM -DMD5_ASM -DAESNI_ASM -DVPAES_ASM -DGHASH_ASM -DECP_NISTZ256_ASM -DX25519_ASM -DPOLY1305_ASM -DZLIB -DNDEBUG -DPURIFY -DDEVRANDOM="\"/dev/urandom\""
OPENSSLDIR: "/etc/pki/tls"
ENGINESDIR: "/usr/lib64/engines-1.1"
Seeding source: os-specific

再次执行vertical-pod-autoscaler/pkg/admission-controller/gencerts.sh

3.4 查看结果

可以看到metrics-server和vpa都已经正常运行了

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get po -n kube-system | grep -E "metrics-server|vpa"
metrics-server-5b58f4df77-f7nks 1/1 Running 0 35d
vpa-admission-controller-7ff888c959-tvtmk 1/1 Running 0 104m
vpa-recommender-74f69c56cb-zmzwg 1/1 Running 0 104m
vpa-updater-79b88f9c55-m4xx5 1/1 Running 0 103m

4 示例

4.1 updateMode: Off

1 首先我们部署一个nginx服务,部署到namespace: vpa

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apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
labels:
app: nginx
name: nginx
namespace: vpa
spec:
replicas: 2
selector:
matchLabels:
app: nginx
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- image: nginx
name: nginx
resources:
requests:
cpu: 100m
memory: 250Mi

看下结果,正常运行了2个pod

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get po -n vpa
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn 1/1 Running 0 8s
nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 1/1 Running 0 9s

2 创建一个NodePort类型的service

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# cat svc.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: nginx
namespace: vpa
spec:
type: NodePort
ports:
- port: 80
targetPort: 80
selector:
app: nginx

[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get svc -n vpa | grep nginx
nginx NodePort 10.255.253.166 <none> 80:30895/TCP 54s

[root@VM-2-16-centos ~]# curl -I 10.1.2.16:30895
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.21.1
Date: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 09:54:58 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Tue, 06 Jul 2021 14:59:17 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "60e46fc5-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

3 创建VPA
这里先使用updateMode: "Off"模式,这种模式仅获取资源推荐但不更新Pod

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# cat nginx-vpa-demo.yaml
apiVersion: autoscaling.k8s.io/v1beta2
kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
metadata:
name: nginx-vpa
namespace: vpa
spec:
targetRef:
apiVersion: "apps/v1"
kind: Deployment
name: nginx
updatePolicy:
updateMode: "Off"
resourcePolicy:
containerPolicies:
- containerName: "nginx"
minAllowed:
cpu: "250m"
memory: "100Mi"
maxAllowed:
cpu: "2000m"
memory: "2048Mi"

4 查看部署结果

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get vpa -n vpa
NAME MODE CPU MEM PROVIDED AGE
nginx-vpa Off 7s

5 使用describe查看vpa详情,主要关注Container Recommendations

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl describe vpa nginx-vpa -n vpa
Name: nginx-vpa
Namespace: vpa
Spec:
Resource Policy:
Container Policies:
Container Name: nginx
Max Allowed:
Cpu: 2000m
Memory: 2048Mi
Min Allowed:
Cpu: 250m
Memory: 100Mi
Target Ref:
API Version: apps/v1
Kind: Deployment
Name: nginx
Update Policy:
Update Mode: Off
Status:
Conditions:
Last Transition Time: 2021-07-09T09:59:50Z
Status: True
Type: RecommendationProvided
Recommendation:
Container Recommendations:
Container Name: nginx
Lower Bound:
Cpu: 250m
Memory: 262144k
Target:
Cpu: 250m
Memory: 262144k
Uncapped Target:
Cpu: 25m
Memory: 262144k
Upper Bound:
Cpu: 670m
Memory: 700542995

其中

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Lower Bound:                 下限值
Target: 推荐值
Upper Bound: 上限值
Uncapped Target: 如果没有为VPA提供最小或最大边界,则表示目标利用率
上述结果表明,推荐的 Pod 的 CPU 请求为 25m,推荐的内存请求为 262144k 字节。

6 现在对nginx进行压测
执行压测命令

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# ab -c 100 -n 10000000 http://10.1.2.16:30895/
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 <$Revision: 1430300 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking 10.1.2.16 (be patient)

Completed 1000000 requests
Completed 2000000 requests
Completed 3000000 requests

7 几分钟后再观察VPA Recommendation变化

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl describe vpa -n vpa nginx-vpa | tail -n 20
Conditions:
Last Transition Time: 2021-07-09T09:59:50Z
Status: True
Type: RecommendationProvided
Recommendation:
Container Recommendations:
Container Name: nginx
Lower Bound:
Cpu: 250m
Memory: 262144k
Target:
Cpu: 1643m
Memory: 262144k
Uncapped Target:
Cpu: 1643m
Memory: 262144k
Upper Bound:
Cpu: 2
Memory: 562581530
Events: <none>

从输出信息可以看出,VPA对Pod给出了推荐值:Cpu: 1643m,因为我们这里设置了updateMode: "Off",所以不会更新Pod

4.2 updateMode: Auto

1 把updateMode: “Auto”,看看VPA会有什么动作
这里把resources改为:memory: 50Mi,cpu: 100m

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get po -n vpa
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 1/1 Running 0 26s
nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 1/1 Running 0 21s

2 再次部署vpa,这里VPA部署文件nginx-vpa-demo.yaml只改了updateMode: "Auto"

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[root@k8s-node001 examples]# cat  nginx-vpa-demo.yaml
apiVersion: autoscaling.k8s.io/v1beta2
kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
metadata:
name: nginx-vpa-2
namespace: vpa
spec:
targetRef:
apiVersion: "apps/v1"
kind: Deployment
name: nginx
updatePolicy:
updateMode: "Auto"
resourcePolicy:
containerPolicies:
- containerName: "nginx"
minAllowed:
cpu: "250m"
memory: "100Mi"
maxAllowed:
cpu: "2000m"
memory: "2048Mi"

3 再次压测

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# ab -c 100 -n 10000000 http://10.1.2.16:30895/

4 几分钟后,使用describe查看vpa详情,同样只关注Container Recommendations

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl describe vpa nginx-vpa  -n vpa | tail -n 20
Conditions:
Last Transition Time: 2021-07-09T09:59:50Z
Status: True
Type: RecommendationProvided
Recommendation:
Container Recommendations:
Container Name: nginx
Lower Bound:
Cpu: 250m
Memory: 262144k
Target:
Cpu: 1643m
Memory: 262144k
Uncapped Target:
Cpu: 1643m
Memory: 262144k
Upper Bound:
Cpu: 2
Memory: 511550327
Events: <none>

Target变成了Cpu:1643m ,Memory:262144k

5、来看下event事件

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl get event -n vpa
LAST SEEN TYPE REASON OBJECT MESSAGE
38s Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h to 10.1.2.16
38s Normal Pulling pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h Pulling image "nginx"
37s Normal Pulled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h Successfully pulled image "nginx"
37s Normal Created pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h Created container nginx
37s Normal Started pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h Started container nginx
3m10s Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 to 10.1.2.15
3m9s Normal Pulling pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Pulling image "nginx"
3m5s Normal Pulled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Successfully pulled image "nginx"
3m5s Normal Created pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Created container nginx
3m5s Normal Started pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Started container nginx
99s Normal EvictedByVPA pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Pod was evicted by VPA Updater to apply resource recommendation.
99s Normal Killing pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67 Stopping container nginx
98s Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh to 10.1.2.15
98s Normal Pulling pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh Pulling image "nginx"
97s Normal Pulled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh Successfully pulled image "nginx"
97s Normal Created pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh Created container nginx
97s Normal Started pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh Started container nginx
3m5s Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 to 10.1.2.17
3m4s Normal Pulling pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Pulling image "nginx"
3m Normal Pulled pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Successfully pulled image "nginx"
2m59s Normal Created pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Created container nginx
2m59s Normal Started pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Started container nginx
39s Normal EvictedByVPA pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Pod was evicted by VPA Updater to apply resource recommendation.
39s Normal Killing pod/nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9 Stopping container nginx
3m10s Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-5594c66dc6 Created pod: nginx-5594c66dc6-lzs67
3m5s Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-5594c66dc6 Created pod: nginx-5594c66dc6-zk6h9
99s Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-5594c66dc6 Created pod: nginx-5594c66dc6-tdmnh
38s Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-5594c66dc6 Created pod: nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h
35m Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn to 10.1.2.16
35m Normal Pulling pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Pulling image "nginx"
35m Normal Pulled pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Successfully pulled image "nginx"
35m Normal Created pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Created container nginx
35m Normal Started pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Started container nginx
3m5s Normal Killing pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn Stopping container nginx
35m Normal Scheduled pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Successfully assigned vpa/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 to 10.1.2.16
35m Normal Pulling pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Pulling image "nginx"
35m Normal Pulled pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Successfully pulled image "nginx"
35m Normal Created pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Created container nginx
35m Normal Started pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Started container nginx
2m58s Normal Killing pod/nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7 Stopping container nginx
35m Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-59fdffd754 Created pod: nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7
35m Normal SuccessfulCreate replicaset/nginx-59fdffd754 Created pod: nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn
3m5s Normal SuccessfulDelete replicaset/nginx-59fdffd754 Deleted pod: nginx-59fdffd754-cb5dn
2m58s Normal SuccessfulDelete replicaset/nginx-59fdffd754 Deleted pod: nginx-59fdffd754-cw8d7
35m Normal ScalingReplicaSet deployment/nginx Scaled up replica set nginx-59fdffd754 to 2
34m Normal EnsuringService service/nginx Deleted Loadbalancer
34m Normal EnsureServiceSuccess service/nginx Service Sync Success. RetrunCode: S2000
3m10s Normal ScalingReplicaSet deployment/nginx Scaled up replica set nginx-5594c66dc6 to 1
3m5s Normal ScalingReplicaSet deployment/nginx Scaled down replica set nginx-59fdffd754 to 1
3m5s Normal ScalingReplicaSet deployment/nginx Scaled up replica set nginx-5594c66dc6 to 2
2m58s Normal ScalingReplicaSet deployment/nginx Scaled down replica set nginx-59fdffd754 to 0

从输出信息可以了解到,vpa执行了EvictedByVPA,自动停掉了nginx,然后使用 VPA推荐的资源启动了新的nginx
,我们查看下nginx的pod可以得到确认

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[root@VM-10-48-centos ~]# kubectl describe po -n vpa nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h
Name: nginx-5594c66dc6-d8d6h
Namespace: vpa
Priority: 0
Node: 10.1.2.16/10.1.2.16
Start Time: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 18:09:26 +0800
Labels: app=nginx
pod-template-hash=5594c66dc6
Annotations: tke.cloud.tencent.com/networks-status:
[{
"name": "tke-bridge",
"interface": "eth0",
"ips": [
"10.252.1.50"
],
"mac": "e6:38:26:0b:c5:97",
"default": true,
"dns": {}
}]
vpaObservedContainers: nginx
vpaUpdates: Pod resources updated by nginx-vpa: container 0: cpu request, memory request
Status: Running
IP: 10.252.1.50
IPs:
IP: 10.252.1.50
Controlled By: ReplicaSet/nginx-5594c66dc6
Containers:
nginx:
Container ID: docker://42e45f5f122ba658e293395d78a073cfe51534c773f9419a179830fd6d1698ea
Image: nginx
Image ID: docker-pullable://nginx@sha256:8df46d7414eda82c2a8c9c50926545293811ae59f977825845dda7d558b4125b
Port: <none>
Host Port: <none>
State: Running
Started: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 18:09:27 +0800
Ready: True
Restart Count: 0
Requests:
cpu: 1643m
memory: 262144k
Environment: <none>
Mounts:
/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-m2j2z (ro)

看重点Requests:cpu: 1643m,memory: 262144k
再回头看看部署文件

1
2
3
requests:
cpu: 100m
memory: 50Mi

现在可以知道VPA做了哪些事了吧。当然,随着服务的负载的变化,VPA的推荐之也会不断变化。当目前运行的pod的资源达不到VPA的推荐值,就会执行pod驱逐,重新部署新的足够资源的服务。

4.3 VPA使用限制

  • 不能与HPA(Horizontal Pod Autoscaler)一起使用
  • Pod必须使用副本控制器,例如使用Deployment或者StatefulSet

4.4 VPA有啥好处

  • Pod 资源用其所需,所以集群节点使用效率高。
  • Pod 会被安排到具有适当可用资源的节点上。
  • 不必运行基准测试任务来确定 CPU 和内存请求的合适值。
  • VPA 可以随时调整 CPU 和内存请求,无需人为操作,因此可以减少维护时间。